Advanced Computing
Technologies used int he designing and developing of computing hardware from hand-held calculators to super computers and peripheral equipment.

Advanced Materials
Materials with engineered properties created through the development of specialized processing and synthesis technology including ceramics, high value-added metals, electronic materials, composites, polymers and biomaterials.

The application of technologies such as: recombinant DNA techniques; biochemistry; molecular and cellular biology; genetics and genetic engineering; cell fusion techniques; new bioprocesses using living organisms or parts of organisms to produce or modify products, to improve plants or animals, to develop microorganisms for specific uses, to identify targets for small molecule pharmaceutical development, or to transform biological systems into useful processes and products or to develop microorganisms for specific uses.

Electronic Device Technology
Technologies involving: microelectronics; semiconductors; electronic equipment and instrumentation; radio frequency, microwave and millimeter electronics; optical and optic-electrical devices; and data and digital communications and imaging devices.

Environmental Technology
Assessment and prevention of threats or damage to human health or the environment, environmental cleanup and the development of alternative energy sources.

Research and Development
Activities performed to discover technological information and technical information and technical and nonroutine activities concerned with translating technological information into new or improved products, processes, techniques, formulas, inventions or software. The term includes exploration of a new use for an existing drug, device or biological product if the new use requires separate licensing by the Federal Food and Drug Administration under chapter 21, C.F.R., as amended. The term does not include adaptation or duplication of existing products where the products are not substantially improved by application of the technology, nor does the term include surveys and studies, social science and humanities research, market research and testing, quality control, sale promotion and service, computer software developed for internal use, and research in areas such as improved style, taste and seasonal design.