See below the glossary index:

0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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Accessible IT: People using UW services and websites have a wide range of abilities and use many different technologies. The Accessible Technology Center (ATC) serves users with disabilities, allowing full use of campus computing resources. Information about Procurement of IT is available here.

Agency: As defined “Agency” shall mean of Washington institutions, the offices of the elective state officers, the Supreme Court, the court of appeals, the administrative and other departments of state government, and the offices of all appointive officers of the "Agency" does not include the legislature but does include colleges, community colleges and universities who choose to participate in state contract(s). [236-48-003 WAC]

All or Nothing Award: The result of a competitive Solicitation that requires that a Contract be executed with a single Contractor for delivery of goods and/or services. In the event that suppliers are unable to deliver the entirety of the goods and/or services required, no Contract is executed. No partial fulfillment opportunities are available as a result of the Solicitation.

Alternate: (1) A substitute offer of goods and services which is not at least a functional equal in features, performance and use and which materially deviates from one or more of the specifications in a competitive solicitation. (2) A bid submitted in knowing variance from the specifications, terms, conditions or provisions of the solicitation. Such a bid is acceptable only when the variance is deemed immaterial.

Award: The acceptance of a bid or proposal; the presentation of a purchase agreement or contract to a bidder.

Amendment: For the purposes of a Contract, shall mean an agreement between the parties to change the Contract after it is fully signed by both parties. Such agreement shall be memorialized in a written document describing the agreed upon change including any terms and conditions required to support such change. An Order Document shall not constitute an Amendment to a Contract.

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Bid: A written offer to perform a contract to purchase or supply goods and/or services in response to an invitation to bid (ITB), Request for Proposal (RFP) or other type of solicitation.

Bid List: List of potential bidders maintained by Purchasing Services from which names may be drawn for solicitation of bids, quotes or proposals. (see “WEBS”)

Bid Evaluation: The process of examining a bid after opening to determine the bidder’s responsibility, responsiveness to requirements, and to ascertain other characteristics of the bid that relate to determination of the successful bidder.

Bid Opening: The formal process through which bids are opened and the contents revealed for the first time.

Bid Sample: A sample required of a bidder for examination, comparison, testing and evaluation by the prospective purchaser.

Bidder: A supplier who submits a bid, quotation or proposal.

Biennium: Two year budgeting period. Begins July 1st in odd-numbered years and ends June 30th of odd-numbered years.

Biennium Close: The Washington State Financial and Administrative Policies, Regulations, and Procedures require that all goods and services charged against the expiring biennium must be received by a designated date in late June. In addition, all invoices and documents should be received and recorded into the financial system by certain cut-off dates, in order to ensure that all expenditures are correctly charged against the expiring biennium.

Blanket Purchase Order (BPO): A Blanket Purchase Order (BPO) is the preferred method for placing orders which will require multiple payments over a period of time.  Examples of BPO's are, standing orders, maintenance/service contracts and open orders.

Brand: A specification identifying a manufacturer of the goods described in a competitive solicitation to identify a standard of quality against which other products will be evaluated.

Business Purpose: Explanation of how the purchase or payment is used for UW business. Primarily needed for audit purposes.

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Carryover: Unexpended budget balances in Local Fund Allocation (LFA), Research Cost Recovery (RCR), and General Operating Fund (GOF) budgets can carry over as temporary allocations in the new biennium. For GOF budgets, the practice has been to allow up to a 1% carryover. LFA and GOF carryover return to the unit, school, college or campus as LFA funds. RCR is returned as RCR funds.

Carry-forward: Carry-forward indicates that portion of a permanent (on-going) commitment that is not funded in the current biennium.

Central Receiver: A group of people within a department who receive invoices on behalf of the department for the assigned org code.

Commodity: An article of trade, a movable article of value, something that is bought or sold.

Competitive Solicitation: Is the process of seeking proposals, quotations or information from suppliers that bid competitively. 

Confidential Information: Any information meeting the criteria in RCW 42.56.210 or any information designated as confidential pursuant to law.

Conflict of Interest: A situation where the personal interests of a contractor, public official or employee are, or appear to be, at odds with the best interest of the state.

Contract: All types of agreements, regardless of what they may be called, for the procurement of goods and services.

Contract Management: Planned, ongoing or periodic activity that measures and ensures contractor compliance with the terms, conditions , requirements of a contract, and may include auditing of invoices.

Contractor: Individual, company, corporation, firm, or combination thereof with whom the purchaser develops a contract for the procurement of goods and services. See Supplier.

Cooperative Purchasing: The combining of requirements of two or more political entities to obtain advantages of volume purchases, reduction in administrative expenses or other public benefits.

Covered Spend: A primary goal of Procurement Services is to have 85% of the UW’s “addressable” spend for goods & services (meaning spend which Procurement Services can impact) covered by contracts; in other words, be managed by Procurement Services.

According to industry experts, “covered” spend typically results in cost savings of roughly 8%, plus reduces risk for the organization and increases efficiency. Procurement Services staff have been creating new contracts and publicizing them through the “UW Contracts” webpage for campus customers to access.

Due in large part to the efforts of Procurement Services staff, the percentage of covered spend has increased from 58% in 2011 to the current 71%, which translates to roughly $6 Million in additional savings over the past six months for goods and services, demonstrating that we are well on our way to the goal of 85% covered spend, and even greater savings for the campus!

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Debrief: Unsuccessful bidders may be entitled to a debrief meeting with the Buyer and/or end user to discuss the results of the solicitation process.

Delivery Terms: Conditions in a contract relating to freight charges, place of delivery, time of delivery or method of transportation.

Design Specifications: A type or method of writing a purchase description characterized by detail as to how the product is to be manufactured or work is to be performed. Appropriate for unique product or custom work.

Direct Buy Limit: The dollar limitation set by state law under which purchases may be made without securing competitive pricing (Policy # DES-125-03, RCW 39.26.125).  Departments may place orders with suppliers of choice within the direct buy limit without prior approval of Purchasing Services. When the ultimate aggregate cost to the department for a service or the purchase of a product exceeds the direct buy limit, regardless of the period of time, contact Procurement Services for guidance. Effective January 1, 2013 the direct buy limit is set at $10,000 excluding sales tax. NOTE: Orders must not be split to avoid competition. For example, if a department intends to purchase 20 each of the same item valued at $2,000 each, the total will exceed the direct buy limit, and unless the department is utilizing a University-approved contract, Procurement Services should be consulted regarding the appropriate buying method. Some exceptions may apply to the purchase of certain items and by order method.

Discount: An allowance or deduction from a normal or list price extended by a seller to a buyer to make the net price more competitive.

Disposition: Transferring, trade-in, selling, or destroying goods that are excess, surplus or scrap.

Designated Operating Funds (DOF): Designated Operating Funds are funds over which the University has unlimited discretion though the University, as a matter of internal policy, may have restricted their use. Composed of: indirect costs(or overhead) charged to self-sustaining budgets and grants, interest income, summer quarter revenue, hospital revenue, administrative overhead, and miscellaneous fees.

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Effective Date of Award: The date that performance of the contract shall start.

Emergency: Unforeseen circumstances beyond the control of the agency which present a real, immediate, and extreme threat to the proper performance of essential functions or which may reasonably be expected to result in excessive loss or damage to property, bodily injury, or loss of life.

Emergency purchase: A purchase made in which the normal competitive purchasing procedures have been waived by a declaration of emergency issued by the Agency Director.

Encumbrance: An outstanding commitment on a funding source. They cease to be encumbrances when paid.

ePayables: The preferred payment method for the University of Washington. This is an electronic payment method in which the supplier is issued a ghosted card similar to credit card except the card is uploaded with funds every time AP issues a payment. Suppliers are notified via email for each remittance made by the university (similar to a check remittance.)

EPEAT Registered Electronic Product: EPEAT registered electronic means the following products that qualifies for registration as an EPEAT product:

(1) a cathode ray tube or a flat panel computer monitor having a viewable area greater than four inches when measured diagonally;

(2) a desktop computer;

(3) a laptop or

(4) a portable computer

Equal: (1) An offer of goods and/or services which meets or exceeds the quality, performance and use of the specifications identified in a competitive solicitation. (2) A phrase used to indicate the acceptability of products of similar or superior function, purpose, design and/or performance. See "Brand".

Equipment: Personal property of a durable nature that retains its identity throughout its useful life.

Evaluation Committee: A committee that advises and assist the purchasing activity in evaluation and award.

Exclusions: To omit from consideration.

Exemptions: Free from duty or obligation required by others.

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Fair Market Price: (1) The price determined by the purchasing activity to be consistent with current market value for the goods or services. (2) A price that would induce a willing purchaser or a willing seller to sell in an open market transaction.

FOB: Acronym for Free on Board.

Formal Competition: Process of soliciting written, sealed bids from several suppliers. Formal competition generally requires that the solicitation be publicly advertised, through a medium such as the internet or newspaper, and bid responses are due at a specific time, and are held sealed until the due date and time, at which time they are opened, reviewed and evaluated through a process managed by the Buyer, with participation from the customer.

Formal Sealed Bid: A bid that has been submitted in a sealed manner, either manually or electronically, to prevent its contents being revealed or known before the deadline for submission of all bids..

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General Operating Funds (GOF): General Operating Funds (GOF) are funds over which the University has significant discretion. They are composed of State appropriations (tax support) and operating fee revenue (a portion of tuition). GOF expenditures are subject to State of Washington and internal University of Washington polices and procedures.

Goods and/or Services: Material, supplies, services, and equipment offered for sale by a supplier(s) and required by an agency to accomplish continuing and necessary functions.

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Informal Competition: Process of soliciting competitive quotations from three or more suppliers using an informal method such as email, fax, phone. Used for smaller dollar purchases. Evaluation and award process conducted by Buyer, requiring minimal participation by customer.

Informality: An immaterial variation from the exact requirements of the competitive solicitation, having no effect or merely a minor or negligible effect on quality, quantity, or delivery of the supplies or performance of the services being procured, and the correction or waiver of which would not affect the relative standing of, or be otherwise prejudicial to bidders.

Inspection: An examination of delivered material, supplies, services, and/or equipment prior to acceptance aimed at forming a judgment as to whether such delivered items are what was ordered, were properly delivered and ready for acceptance. Inspection may include a high level visual examination or a more thorough detailed examination as is customary to the type of purchase, as set forth in the solicitation document and/or as agreed between the parties. Inspection shall be acknowledged by an authorized signature of the purchaser.

Invitation to Bid (ITB): The solicitation document utilized to solicit bids in the formal, sealed bid procedure and all documents attached or incorporated by reference.

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Late Bids or Quotations: A bid or proposal received at the place specified in the solicitation after the time designated for all bids or quotations to be received.

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Machinery and Equipment (M&E) Sales Tax Exemption: Equipment purchased for certain University research and development activities may qualify for a sales tax exemption allowed under RCW 82.08.02565, known as the Machinery and Equipment Tax Exemption, or "M&E Exemption." Read about M&E Sales Tax Exemption on the more on the Equipment Inventory Office website.

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Non-Catalog Purchase Order: A requisition that has been fully approved. Each purchase order is assigned a unique number that is sent to suppliers to confirm placement of order. 

Non-Catalog Requisition: An electronic request to purchase goods and/or services. Each requisition gets assigned a unique number that is not seen by suppliers.

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OEM: Original Equipment Manufacturer.

Official Duty Station: Where employee's work is performed on a permanent basis. Namely the location they spend most of their time working.

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PayMode: PayMode is an ACH payment option for those who cannot accept payments via ePayables. These are electronic payment transfers made through the Automated Clearing House Network from one account to another.

Petty Cash: A centralized petty cash fund is operated by Student Fiscal Services (SFS) to assist University departments in making small expenditures on either an advance or reimbursement basis. All transactions are strictly on a cash basis or handled in person.

Procurement Coordinator: The Buyer responsible for conducting a specific Solicitation.

Procurement Services: The UW department with staff who have formal delegated authority to execute contracts on behalf of the University.

Prompt Payment Discount: A discount offered by the bidder to encourage timely payment by purchaser within the stated term identified by bidder.

Proposal: An offer to perform a contract to supply goods or services in response to a request for proposal.

Proposer: A person submitting a proposal in response to a Request for Proposals (RFP).

Purchase: Shall include purchase, lease, renting or lease-purchase of goods and services.

Purchase Order (PO): A contract between a buyer and a seller. It should include an accurate description of what is being purchased, from whom, at what price, and under what terms and conditions. A requisition becomes a purchase order (P.O.) when the order is placed.

Purchased Service: Labor, time or effort provided by an independent contractor not involving the delivery of a specific end product and is usually awarded through competition. Generally, these services meet more routine needs of an agency for general support activities.

Purchaser: The authorized user of a Contract who may or actually does make purchases of material, supplies, services, and/or equipment under the Contract.

Purchasing Activity: A purchasing unit (UW Purchasing Services) within an agency (UW) that buys for an identifiable program, region, or division.

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Quotation: An offer to perform a contract to supply goods and/or services in response to a request for quotation.

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Recurring Order: An order that will be placed more than once for the same good or service from the same supplier using the same order number. A standing order is a common type of recurring order.

Recycled Material: Goods containing recycled materials. Waste materials and by-products that have been recovered or diverted from solid waste and that can be utilized in place of a raw or virgin material in manufacturing a product and consists of materials derived from post-consumer waste, manufacturing waste, industrial scrap, agricultural wastes and other items, all of which can be used in the manufacture of new or recycled products.

Request for Proposal (RFP): The document utilized to solicit written proposals from potential suppliers. Both cost and non-cost factors are evaluated in addition to conditions of responsiveness and responsibility to achieve best value. A weighted point assignment method of evaluation may be used if considered appropriate.

Request for Quotation (RFQ):

(1) The document used to solicit written quotations.

(2) The request and the quote in response may be either written or oral as specified by the purchasing activity. Factors impacting cost and conditions of responsiveness and responsibility are normally evaluated. Non-cost factors may be evaluated and all factors may be weighted if considered appropriate.

(3) The required use document generally used for seeking competition on smaller purchases or on purchases lower than the amount that requires competitive sealed bidding.

Responsible Bidder: character, integrity, reputation, judgment, experience, and efficiency of the bidder; Further considerations may include, but are not limited to whether the bidder can perform the contract within the time specified, the quality of performance of previous contracts or services, the previous and existing compliance by the bidder with laws relating to the contract or services and such other information as may be secured having a bearing on the decision to award the contract A person who has the capability in all respects to perform in full the contract requirements and meets the elements of responsibility.

Responsive Bidder: A person whose bid conforms in all material respects to the terms and conditions, the specifications, and other requirements of a solicitation.

Revised Code of Washington (RCW): Permanent laws of the State of Washington in force. Sealed bid limit That dollar amount established by RCW above which the formal sealed bid procedure will be used.

Revolving Funds: A revolving fund account is an advance of funds to an individual custodian on behalf of a department. Revolving fund accounts are mainly used for paying research subjects, reimbursing expenses paid by individuals on behalf of the university and small items for which there is no other means of payment.

RFx: A generic term for a competitive solicitation. The solicitation method used will be determined by the dollar amount of the requested item and the complexity of the project. Different types of solicitations include Request for Quote (RFQ), Request for Proposal (RFP), Invitation to Bid (ITB), Request for Information (RFI), Request for Quote and Qualifications (RFQQ).

Risk: The probability of loss (financial, reputational, physical) to the University of Washington arising from the actions of the supplier in the performance of a contract. High risk contracts include but are not limited to the following: new technology, complex services/systems, dangerous activities, air charters, vessel charters, patient care related services/equipment. Buyers mitigate these risks by acquiring insurance, limiting liability, warranties, verifying references and financial stability, etc.

RoHS Compliant Electronic Product: RoHS Compliant Electronic Product means the following products defined that meets the requirements of the RoHS Directive: A cathode ray tube or flat screen television having a viewable area greater than four inches when measured diagonally.

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SAF: Previously known as the "status action form", this is now the electronic format to liquidate an encumbrance.

Segmenting: The segmenting of a requirement or project into parts to avoid dollar limitations or competition is prohibited. The parts of an acquisition are those items which would normally be acquired together to accomplish a task or project.

Single Source Purchase: A purchase of goods or services which is clearly and legitimately limited to a single source of supply. See “Sole Source”.

Sole Source Justification: Purchases which are clearly and legitimately limited to a single source of supply and purchases involving special facilities, services, or market conditions, in which instances the purchase price may be best established by direct negotiation.

Solicitation: The documented process of notifying prospective suppliers that the University wishes to receive an offer to furnish goods and/or services. The process may consist of issuing a written RFx (Request for Proposal, Request for Quotation, etc.), public advertising, and posting online notices to prospective bidders. The solicitation process ends with the selection of a supplier based on criteria set forth in the solicitation document. The term “solicitation” is often used interchangeably with the term “bid” or “invitation to bid”.

Special Market Condition: Same as Single Source Purchase.

Specifications: Is a clear and accurate description of the technical requirements for a material, product or service, including the procedure by which it will be determined that the requirement have been met. Specifications are used where well defined materials, products or services are to be provided, and formal specifications for the items are available.

Splitting: The splitting of continuing/repetitive requirements for the same good or service into several purchases to avoid dollar limitations or competition. See "Segmenting".

Standing Order: An arrangement between a buyer and a supplier in which the supplier is instructed to deliver a specific good or service at a specific time interval. Example: 12 reams of copy paper delivered each month for 12 months. The supplier delivers 12 reams of paper each month and invoices against the standing order.

Standard Purchasing Forms: Forms and templates developed by UW Purchasing Services for university use.

State Contract: The written document, administered by the State of Washington, Office of State Procurement on memorializing the agreement between the successful Bidder and the Office of State Procurement for materials, supplies, services, and/or equipment.

Statement of Work (SOW): A statement of work describes the work to be performed or the services to be provided. It describes tasks, directs methodologies to be used, and sets forth the period of performance. It should contain only qualitative and quantitative design and performance requirements.

Subaward: A formal cooperative research relationship with another organization, generally a university or non-profit research center, that is part of a sponsored agreement/proposal accepted by the University of Washington and the other organization participating in the research project or provides a required service to complete the research project. (See GIM7 for more information).

Subcontractor: A person or business that is, or will be, providing or performing an essential aspect of a contract under the direction and responsibility of the Contractor and with the agreement of the Purchasing Activity.

Supplier: A vendor of purchased goods and services. See Vendor and Contractor.

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Terms and Conditions: All laws, requirements, and conditions associated with a contract or purchase order (P.O.).

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Used Equipment: Goods offered for sale which do not have a full factory warranty and which are not being rented, leased, or otherwise in the actual possession of the state agency considering the purchase at the time of the purchase transaction.

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Vehicle: A device, as a motor vehicle, boat, airplane or a piece of mechanized equipment, for transporting passengers, goods, or apparatus.

Vendor: A provider of materials, supplies, services, and/or equipment. See Supplier.

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Washington Administrative Code (WAC): Regulations of executive branch agencies are issued by authority of statutes. Like legislation and the Constitution, regulations are a source of primary law in Washington State. The WAC codifies the regulations and arranges them by subject or agency.

Washington Electronic Business Solution (WEBS): The State of Washington website where all state agencies post online notices notifying suppliers of RFx opportunities. Suppliers must register on the website to receive the notifications.

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